|28-04-2008, 11:33 PM||#1|
The West (European) Hun's
The West (European) Hun's
Since more than 200 years several estimations have been made about the identity of the West (European) Hun's. Scientists have proposed them as Turks, Fins, Fin-Ugor, Uygur, Mongolians, Turkish-Mongolian mixtures, Turkish-Mongolian Manchu mixtures or that their origin is directly from the Slav or they belong to the German race or to the Caucasian tribes. But with the examinations that were made in near past it became clearer that they were of Turkish origin and had been the grandsons of the Asian Hun's.
The Language of the West Hun's
The language of the European Hun's had been Turkish. The names of the dynasty members are as follows: Karaton (kada don - dress), Muncuk (bead, Attila's father), Attila (estimated from name of the place he was born Etil = Itil = Volga), Ilek (= Ilig = Illig), Dengizik (Dengiz= from Sea), Irnek (little soldier) (the last three had been Attila's sons), Aybars, Oktar (Attila's uncles), Arikan (= Arig-kan = eminent, noble queen). Well known personalities: Basik, Kursik, Atakam, Eshkam; Communities: Agacheri, Shar (sari = white) Ogur and Kimiz (in Priskos). It is even possible to draw connection between the West Hun dynasty to the Asian Tan-hu's.
The Immigration of the Tribes
After the capture of the country Alan in the middle of the IV. Century, the Hun's were seen at the sides of the Itil (Volga) in 374. During this time the north plain grounds of the Black Sea stood under the occupation of a German tribe, the Got's (Vizigot). More to the west, in Transsylvania and Galichia there were the Gepid's, at the surroundings of river Tisza today's Hungary the Vandall's. Besides these four German tribes there were also Iranian and Slav tribes and some other smaller German populations who lived in the same region.
The great attack under the leadership of the Hun chief Balamir first hit the East Got's and tore down this state (374), whereof king Ermanarik committed suicide.
Hunimund who took his place, was "assigned" by the Hun's. The Hun attacks continued with "An astonishing ability for movement and a developed infantry tactics" whereof the hard stroke caused the West Got's to collapse near the river Dnyeper and king Atanarik fled together with the crowded Vizigot's towards west (375). Thus with the military force of the Hun army, who had ejected different tribes from their countries towards west, and reached Spain by defeating the north states of the Roman Empire the historical "Immigration of the tribes" had started which also changed the ethnical appearance of Europe.
The terror that was awakened among the East European tribes which was caused by the sudden and impetuous Hun attacks, the appearance of Hun raider squads in unexpected areas had created horrible reflecting in the West world. Many Latin and Greek sources show incredible rumours and stories came up and spread out against the Hun's. For the first time in spring 378 the Hun's have with the assisting power of the Got's, Alan's and German Taifal's past the Danube and reached Thrace without any resistance of the Roman's. Nevertheless, these forces that had been seen on Roman grounds just were exploring vanguard raiders.
As a matter of fact, in the same period of time incursions had been organised to the plain grounds of today's Hungary. Wile being afraid of the Hun's, the Markoman's and Kuads who lived on today's Austrian grounds, prepared themselves to move to Roman grounds, the Iranian originated Sarmats crossed the borders and entered the Roman Empire and the West Got's who had stopped first in Transylvania, crossed the Roman borders (381). On the other side some Germen originated groups and Iranian Bashtarna's had crossed Pannonia (West Hungary) and started threaten Italy from over the Alps.
The immigration of the huge tribes that started in 375 was of great importance to the world and especially for Europe. The "Immigration of the tribes" had a direct effect on the breakdown of the Roman Empire and the ethnical and political formation of today's Europe. This was also a turning point in the history of Europe and the beginning of a new era (The Middle Age). After the West Hun's who stayed in Yayik, Kama and the regions of the Caspian Sea in 100-374 A.D. had crossed the Volga and turned towards west had started a huge "immigration" movement among various tribes and especially the German ones.
The Incursion of the Hun's to Anatolia or the First Arrival of the Turks in Anatolia (395)
The Hun's again started to move after the death of the Roman Emperor Theodosius I, which was in 395. This movement had two fronts. While some of the Hun's moved over the Balkans to Thrace, another bigger part turned to Anatolia over the Caucasis. The incursion to Anatolia had been realised under the administration of the chiefs Basik and Kursik and planned by the "east wing" of the Hun Empire at the surroundings of river Don.
In this incursion the Hun cavalryman proceeded from the region of Erzurum up to Karasu and Firat valleys from there on to Melitene (Malatya) and Kilikkia (Çukurova) which had had excited the Roman's as well as the Sasani. After they had captured the castles of Edessa (Urfa) and Antakya, which were the most arbitrated one in the region, they came down to Syria and captured Tyros (Sur), from where he turned towards Jerusalem. These incursions happened so quickly that the frightened church invented incredible stories about the Hun's who in front of their horror filled eyes turned to north by spring and reached Kappadokia-Galatia (Kayseri-Ankara and surroundings) from where they turned back over Azerbaijan-Baku to their administrative centre in the north.
This incursion was the solid historical record about the Turks in Anatolia. When in 398 various smaller incursions took place, Arkadios, the young emperor of East Rome couldn't take serious precautions.
The Second Immigration of Tribes and the Hun Chief Uldiz
Around 400, the Hun pressure under the administration of chief Uldiz (in Greek and Latin sources: Huldin, Uldin, but more Uldiz) in West could be perceived more and more.Uldiz, who is supposed to be the son or the grandson of Balamir, fixed the elements of the Hun foreign policy which had last until the end of Attila's time, what meant that East Rome - Byzantium - always had to bet held under pressure and the connections to West Rome had to be kept friendly.
That is because the Hun's intended to include Byzantium under his influence and on the other hand they had to cooperate with West Rome against the "barbarian" tribes who at the same time were the enemies of the Hun's and spread uneasiness by transgression in the grounds of West Rome. As a matter of fact with the appearance of Uldiz in Danube the 2nd of the Immigration of Tribes had started, the Asding Vandal's had entered the states of West Rome by 401, and the Vizigot's who had fled from the Hun's had been seen in Italy. This Got jeopardy that reached under the administration of Alarik over Lombardia to Gallia, could hardly held up by the famous Roman commander Stilikho (April 402). But a more terrific barbarian appeared, who jumped over Rome: Radagais, who under his own iron fist had united the, Vandal's, Suebs, Kuads, Burgonds, Saxons, Alamans etc., who had left their grounds in fear of the Huns. He was caused great falsification and proclaimed to wipe off Rome from the world. This barbarian chief, who even could not be stopped by Stilikho in the war of Pavia, was condemned only by the Turks.
Radagais had been captured and executed (August 406) by the Hun army that was reinforced by Roman forces under the attendance of Uldiz, who was in command during the great war of Faesulae (=Fiesole, in the south of Florence). With this victory Uldiz achieved to save a great centre of civilization like Rome. In the same time, the Vandals, Alans, Sueb, Sarmatt, Kett etc. who feared the Hun power were forced to move to the farther side of the river Rein to Gallia by which they removed the obstacles on the road to west for the Huns and made it possible for them to freely release their power in this area.
The Hun Pressure over Byzantium and the Historical Phrase of Uldiz
Uldiz was thought as the leader of the Hun Empires "west wing" of which the borders almost reached the Lake Balkash in Asia. In 404-405 and especially in 409 as he crossed the river Danube he proved Byzantium that the Hun threat had not decreased yet and according to Greek sources he had challenged by telling the governor of Thrace who had came for reconciliation negotiations "I can capture any place up to the point where the sun goes down". After Uldiz died (ca. 410) Karaton was on top of the Hun Empire.
The only thing we know about this is that he had gone to Olympiodoros, the ambassador of Byzantium in 412. Karaton seemed to be involved mostly in eastern missions. As until 422 no information about the Hun's can be given, it is estimated that this occupation had last for approximately 10 years.
The Attitudes of the Hun's in front of the Roman State
The year 422 was like a beginning of new era for the European Huns. At this time, Rua who was one of the four brothers (Rua, Muncuk, Aybars, Oktar) of the Hun dynasty had been the emperor and as Muncuk (Attila's father) died too early, the other two brothers were in the condition of "the wing kings". Rua, who had followed Uldiz in politics, organized the Balkan state of war (422) by awaking his espionage ring and his propagandists in the grounds of the Hun's for supporting the Byzantien Hun army for revolts and in order to separate the national tribes apart from the Hun's.
He had bound Byzantium to yearly taxes: 350 lb. of gold. Emperor Theodosius II. (408-450), proclaimed against Valentinianus III, who had been assigned the Emperor of West Rome as he was 4 years old, his assertion to capture Rome and whereof he had sent his army and fleet to Italy which brought the West Roman's and the Hun's closer to each other. Upon the I.Notarius (State Chief Counsellor) Johannes had been elected by the senate instead of the young emperor, Aetius the 35-year-old famous aristocratic came to Rua in order to help.
The Hun emperor turned towards Italy on front of his 60 thousand cavalrymen. Byzantium called back army without entering the war and had to pay a heavy war indemnity. Aetius who had become "Magister militum" in 429, council in 432 and raised to "Patricius" in 433, which was the highest title at the Roman Empire, had been the chief commander for a long period. With the help of the Hun's Aetius had overcome his crisis that occurred as he was too much involved in matters of the Roman throne. After a severe fight in Africa (432) with his enemy Geiserk, the Vandal king, he saved his life by escaping to Rua.
Rua's Byzantium Politics and his Death (434)
All this showed that Rua's strong personality and the Hun state had guided the inner and outer politics of both Rome's. From this time on it was out of discussion that the "barbarian" tribes, who were subordinated to the Hun's, could start any movement by counting on the Roman's. However, according to the statements of the Byzantium historian Priskos, Theodosius II, who had bought peace for annual 350 lb. gold from Rua, nevertheless did not stop secretly provoking the foreigners who were under the Hun leadership.
Therefore Rua forbade the Byzantines to continue collecting soldiers from the foreigners of the Hun Empire and the trading of the Byzantian merchants on Hun grounds, which continued until then. Within the boundaries of his country no Greek was allowed to circulate freely and could trade only in certain border valleys. Meanwhile Rua had demanded the extradition of Mama and Atakam's sons and some other Hun fugitives, who had sheltered only a while ago to the Byzantian. With an immediate action Theodosius II. decided to sent his assembly of ambassadors in order to deal for agreements to the capital of the Hun state. Just then Rua had past away (spring 434).
Byzantium was happy being freed from an enemy, Bishop Proculus preached that the god had accepted the prayers of the religious emperor Theosios and had lifted the danger over Byzantium. But the Byzantian assembly of ambassadors who came to the borders of the Hun's met a Turkish chief that was even worse than Rua: Attila. Attila was in the age of 39-40 as he came to power of the Hun's. As his father died too early, he grew up beneath his uncle Rua, joined the expeditions together with him, had the close opportunity to get acquainted with different tribes, learned about states leadership and the elements of Hun inner and outer politics.
Attila Becoming an Emperor
Attila was not alone. He run the country together with his brother Buda (Bleda). But as it can also be seen in the documents, Buda who enjoyed amusement a lot, had not enough energy, mostly stood in "Backstage" and left the state to his brother who had serious leadership qualifications. Attila was in charge of organizing the army and outer connections. Their uncle Aybars (the "king" of the east wing) and Oktar (the "king" of the west wing) saved their positions as it was on Rua's time. As there was no competition for power Buda had not been killed by Attila who was "burning with ambitions for power", contrary to the assertions. Buda who had assisted his brother for 11 years in the administration of the Hun Empire had died naturally in 445.
The Margus Peace
In the spring of 434 Attila, met the ambassadors of Byzantium on top of his horse in front of walls of Constantia (right in front of the Margus castle) at the point where the rivers Danube and Morava joint, and even without giving time for them to rest he dictated them his stipulations for peace. According to this Peace of Constantia (some call it the Peace of Margus) the agreement contained following items: from now on Byzantium would not neither negotiate nor make any agreements with the Hun tribes, refugees who fled from the Hun's - even the captives from the Byzantian population - would not get the right for immigration, the prisoners in the hands of the Huns should be extradited (for the Greek originated ransom may be paid), trade would only be made in certain border valleys and the annual taxes, Byzantium had to pay would be doubled (700 lb. gold).
Theodosius II accepted exactly what Attila had demanded. And Attila hanged the refugees in Thrace, the castle of Karsus (Hirsovo in Bulgaria), that were handed out to the Huns according to the agreements item, before he even took them out of Byzantium. This attitude made Attila to a most feared authority, not even among the Hun's but also in Byzantium, in Rome and among the other tribes. After this, Attila started a months lasting inspection journey on his horse where he repressed the revolt attempts (435) of the Shara-ogur (Ak-Ogur, a Turk tribe) at the sides of river Itil (Volga). Within the Hun Empire for this period of time it is proposed that the centre of gravity on the west wing was the region around Danube and the centre of gravity of the east wing the surroundings of river Dnyeper, as it was tracked in the sources, following tribes took place:
Tribes That Depended to the Hun State
a. Germen (from east to west): The East Gots, Gepids, Suebs, Markomans, Kuads, Heruls, Rugis
b. Slav (in middle and west Russia): The Venedals, Ants, Sklavens
c. Iranians (dispersed from the Causcasis to the Danube): The Alans, Sarmats, Bashternas, Neurlar, Skirs, Roxolans
d. Fin-Ugor (from the Ural to Baltik): The Chermis, Mordvins, Meryas, Veshis, Chuds, Ests, Vidivaris
e. Turks: Dispersed all over the Empire, Huns, on the plain grounds of north Blacksea the Uc-gur and Besh-ogur, near to Volga the Alti-ogur, Shara-ogur, more to the north the Agacheri (Akatzir, Agazir), east of the river Volga the Sabar and other Turkish groups.
The Assistance of the Hun's to West Rome
These tribes who were almost 45 in their number, of various languages and races, had just been a political society in the eye of the Turkish states system. Foreign tribes were tied up to the Hun Empire only through their chiefs, commanders or their kings.
Silence was dominating within the emperorship. Except for the Agacheri revolt, which was repressed by Onegesius (Oneguz) the commander (General Staff Manager) of the Hun army and the Ilek the elder son of Attila in 422, the silence had not been broken. However the peasantry revolts (Bagauda's) had agitated the system and the public order in the Roman Empire which was caused by things like the robbing of the crop from the native by force and the immigrating tribes who made a huge destruction on places they stayed and on the roads they passed. Because of this Rome again applied for the help of the Hun's through Patricius Aetius. After two years of combats the revolting chiefs had been beaten by Aetius and the Hun squads Attila had sent (436).
But this time they had to fight against the Burgond's who had attacked the Belgium region under the leadership of King Gundikar. These fights took place especially along the sides of river Neckar and commanded by Oktar the "King" of the west wing. According to narrations, this Hun-Burgond battle, where 20 thousand Burgonds died, was also a part of "Niebelungen" the famous legend of the Germans. After the wars that were finalized with the occupation of whole "Germania", following tribes were taken under the Turk administration in the years following 436: Franks, Turings, Longobards. The stories of the Hun's who had reached the "Ocean Islands, in other words the North Sea and the shores of the English Channel, had been recorded by the modern historian Priskos.
Attila's Byzantium Politics and the I. Balkan War
After 440 Attila had raised the pressure against Byzantium. That was because Theodosius II., had acted against the Constantia Agreement, took it quite slow to extradite the Hun refugees and even brought some of them to high positions. For example the Got originated Hun refugee Arnegisclus had been sent with a generals rank to the Hun border in Thrace. On the collective market place the Greek merchants cheated the Huns. The Bishop of Margus, around Constantia, robbed the graves of the Hun nobles that were full with weapons and ornaments made of valuable minerals.
This behaviour annoyed the Hun's.At least Byzantium took part in the above mentioned Agacheri Revolt as the provocateur. On the other hand Geiserikh, the African Vandal King, had asked for the help of Attila against Byzantium, as they had obstructed him during his Mediterranean operations. Because of this and with the capturing of Margus the I.Balkan battle under the leadership of Attila had begun (441-442), which developed over Singidunum (Belgrad) and Naissus (Niş) to Thrace. Meanwhile it slowed down with the intervention of West Rome.
Aetius had sent his own son Karpilio as a hostage to the Hun palast in order to guarantee that he would respect the terms of agreement with Theodosius. At the end of this battle the castles along the river Danube were taken into the administration of the Hun's, the fortifications in the back lines had been demolished and all resistance places that were used in the Balkan's against the Hun's had been lifted.
Attila : The Sword of God Attila
In 445, after Buda had died, Attila became the only Hun Emperor and raised to top of the power. He was the ruler over West Asia and Middle Europe. The situation of both Romes was obvious. As no power could stop Attila, the sword of Ares the god of war, who had been the symbol of world leadership in this era, was given to Attila. According to Priscus, this sacred sword had been found by a Hun shepherd and was given to Attila.
Now the capture of the world was near, it was believed that the God had empowered Attila by this sword to rule over the world.
II. Balkan War and the Anatolius Peace
In addition to this situation the fact that Byzantium acted slowly in extraditing the refugees and the unwillingness for paying the annual taxes had caused the 2. Balkan War (447). The armies who crossed the Danube from various points under the leadership of Attila, continued from two wings occupying the castles Sardica (Sofia), Philipopolis (Filibe), Marcianopolis (Preslav), Arcadiopolis (Lüleburgaz), fortified locations and cities.
After they had captured all these an draw a wide circle from Teselya to Termopil, they came to Athyra (Buyuk Cekmece) to capture the capital of Byzantium, where Attila accepted the two ambassadors Magister and Patricius, which were sent by Thodosios for peace negotiations and they came to an agreement (The Anatolius Peace). According to this agreement all soldiers had to be drawn back from the south of Danube within a five-days distance, Byzantium had to pay 6000 lb. gold as a war-fee. Besides the annual taxes had been increased threefold (2100 lb. gold).
The Assassination Attempt on Attila and the Unforgettable Answer of Attila to Theodosius II.
From Byzantium's point of view the hardest term had been the annual taxes.Having to provide that amount of gold each year exceeded the emperorships power. Theodosius, who had been astonished, had found an unusual solution with the advises of the aristocrats of his palast: to get rid of Attila with an assassination. A Hun assembly in the leadership of Edekon (Turk) and Orestos (a Roman from Pannonia) had started their journey from the Byzantium capital to Attila's state capital- Middle Hungary.
Not knowing anything about the assassination plans, the famous Jurisprudential and the Priskos, who helped us to learn about Attila, his era and the 5th century Europe Turkish history with his notes he left, made this vacation together with the secret missioned Bigilas, whose duty was to execute the secret plan. When the assembly arrived at the Hun capital in summer 448, Attila, who was informed by Edekon, made confess Bigilas about his intentions and plans and did nothing to any of the Byzantian.
He rather had sent this note to Theodosius with a special courier: "Theodosius, is a son of a honourable father, as Attila is. Attila saved the honour that he got from his father, but Theodoisos had became a slave of Attila by being a tax-payer. Theodosius was not able to save his honour even as a slave because he intended to take the live of his master." Immediately another assembly was sent out from Byzantium in the leadership of Anatolius, magister and Nomus who had to calm down Attila. This assembly had found Attila in the Hun capital contrary to their expectations, very calm and soft. Thus the Hun outer politics were in a change. Attila, who had proclaimed to be the only leader of Byzantium in the presence of Theodosius, believed that it was time to turn towards West Rome.
The last time a military support was given to West Rome was in 439, from that time on the help was cut off. Although paying his annual taxes to the Hun State, general Aetius prepared for a possible Hun-Roman battle that might come up: He improved his relation to the "Barbarian", build up armies mostly consisting of cavalryman in the Turkish style with the soldiers he bought from them and started secret relations to some of the Hun tribes. In addition to this, Attila was interested in the revolts that again raised and reached from Gallia to Spain in 443, and searched for cooperation possibilities with the Vandal's against Rome. And he, without any doubts, was aware of the importance of this job, as this was an opportunity to take revenge of the Roman Empire and the whole "West" world that consisted of "Barbarian".
Atilla's New West Rome Policy
After the termination of political and military preparations of the Huns, which had last for about two years after 448's, Attila directed his first diplomatic attack to Rome: Attila, who once had sent an engagement ring in order to show that he was willing to marry Honoria, had announced that he accepted to marry her, the impertinent natured sister of the Emperor Valentinianus III, who had been called "Augusta" since 425 in order to show that she knew the empire laws. As trousseau Attila demanded half of her share from the empire or the right to participate in the administration of the Roman Empire as being "the husband of Augusta". At first, Valentinianus and Aetius tried to delay the response but with the clear refusal of the offer, the big Hun's mobilization of war was legitimated. A few misunderstandings about the Vizigoths and Ripuar Francs near the shore of Rhine deepened the idea of war.
The Battle of Campus Mauriacus
The Hun forces, that started their move from Middle Hungary towards west in the beginning of 451's, in total consisted about 200 thousand people of which 90-100 thousand had been Turks and about the same quantity had been German and Slavic.
While the Hun armies crossed the river Rhine and entered Gallia from three different points in February-March, the Roman army, which had arrived to Gallia from Italy under the command of Aetius and increased its numbers to 200 thousand with the support of the Hun enemy "barbarians", quickly proceeded to the north. As the Hun armies had captured Mettis (Metz in April 7) and Durocortum (Rheims) and arrived at the city of Aurelium (Orleans), near todays Paris, Aetius had already reached there. But the battle began at Campus Mauriacus (in the west of city Troyes in the lowland of Champagne in June 20, 451) because Attila believed that this place was more suitable according to Turkish war plans.
It is still a subject of discussions, who had been the victor of this great battle, that had last for 24 hours, and in which both halfes of the world that had fought against each other giving lots of casualties (hundredthousands died according to sources). Western historians claim that Atilla had been defeated and as a proof for this they show the withdraw of the Huns without the destruction of the Roman forces. However, in the evening of the battle, the Roman armies dispersed, and even Aetius who had lost communication with his units, fell in-between the Hun detachments from where he could escape only with difficulties. In the early hours of the next day, the army of the West Got under the command of Thurismund, the son of King Theodorik, who had died during the battle, left the war place and the forces of Franks who had lots of casualties, had followed them.
Besides, it is obvious that Attila had reached his aim in this battle. In order to gain the domination over West, he first proceeded to Gallia where he intended to defeat the Gallian barbarians, which had been the human and soldier warehouse of the Roman Empire and finally breaking the war power of these natural allied of Rome, he succeeded in leaving Rome without support. As a result, the famous Aetius had fallen into disfavour in Rome. One of the most asked questions in Rome had been, what the West Empire had gained in Campus Maruriacus, as Attila, who brought his forces within 20 days from the center of Gallia to the capital region healthy and in discipline, preserved his strength and "fearsomeness". Thus, as Attila had began his expedition to Italy, not even one year had passed and the Roman's had no power to resist to the Huns. According to the records of the contemporary Prosper Tiro (secretary of Pope Leon I.), Aetius tried to convince the emperor Valentinianus to leave Italy, due to the impossibility for resistance.
Attila's Expedition to Italy and His Death
In spring 452 Attila brought his 100 thousand men forces to the plains of today's Venice by passing them over Alps of Julia. After he captured the famous Aquileia castle, he entered the grassy land of Po. Starting his occupation of the Aemilia region and his threatening of Ravenna, the capital of the Roman Empire of that time, was enough to finalize this matter. The palace was worried, the population agitated, and the senate decided to reconcile in spite of what ever may happen. The church also agreed with this desire. A committee was organized quickly. Attila, who had based his military camp in the plains where River Mincio poured to River Po, received the committee, which was directed by Pope Leon I., who had been famous for his oratory.
The Pope, speaking in the name of the emperor and the whole Christian world, requested from the big Turkish chief to spare Rome. Attila, who five years ago, had come powerfully up to Çekmece without even devastating Istanbul, had agreed to spare the ancient centre of civilization after he heard from the Pope himself that Rome had surrendered. While returning to his capital together with his victorious army, Attila believed that the West Roman Empire was under his control doubtless as well as Byzantium. As Priskos stated what he had heard from the West Roman ambassadors in the Hun's capital in 448, now it had been the turn of the Sasani's. The "sovereignty of the world" would be realized by the patronization of that place. But, Attila couldn't realize this dream. As it is narrated, after his return from the Italian expedition, he died (453) in the first night of his marriage with blood coming from his mouth. He had been aro
Attila is the one of the rare person in the history, who reached immortality in the memories of nations. His legends spread from mouth to mouth in Italy, Gallia, in the countries of German, in Britain, in Scandinavia and in the whole middle Europe and became subject for the novelists, painters, and to sculptors. He rose to be a personality about whom most books had been written. He was the inspiration for authors of theatre and composers; almost a dozen of operas had been composed on behalf of his name.
Neutral historical researchers that had been made in the last half century show that he had nothing to do with the Christian Middle Age's made-up stories, but non-contemporary registers, mainly the legends of Nibelungen, recognized him as being helpful, a good-natured man, a ruler with a distinguishing qualities.
Death of Attila
Gökyüzünde yaş yağdıran bir bulut
Güneş yaslara bürünmüş batıyor...
Altın, gümüş ve çelikten bir tabut
Bu tabutta Hun güneşi yatıyor.
A cloud shedding tears in the sky
The sun sinking in sorrow and grief…
A tomb made of gold, silver and steel
The sun of Huns lies in this tomb
When Attila returned from his expedition to Italy, he wanted to organise a last military expedition in order to establish dominion in the entire world. He had established domination in the entire West. He planned to establish dominion and to impose tax over Sasani State that was dominant in Iran in order to establish dominion in the entire East.
However, he could not accomplish his plans for the military expedition towards Iran.Pursuant to his expedition to Italy, Attila made a great feast-wedding ceremony in his palace in a night with full moon and he was married with a very beautiful princess named Ildiko in that night. As a result of haemorrhage in the first night of his marriage, he died of blood coming from his nose (453). The kam (religious leader) that examined the corpse stated, "There is not any assassination. His elder brother, Buda (Bleda) had also died of the same disease".
The death of Attila caused a terrible grief and mourning among Huns. However, he had reached to the eternal state in the memories of the nations. According to the rumours, he was put within three coffins one within the other. The first coffin was made of gold that was shining like the sun since he was the sun of Huns. The second coffin was made of silver that was shining like the comae of the comet since he was a comet that was rarely seen. The third coffin was made of steel that was tempered twice since he was as strong as steel.
Upon the organisation of a great mourning ceremony, this three-layered coffin that was made of gold, silver and steel was buried in one of the isles of Tisza River together with the weapons and valuable materials of Attila. This little isle was digged in depth and then, the riverbed was diverted and the river ran over it. Therefore, nobody would be able to find his tomb and plunder it. Actually, it has not been found yet.
The Period After Attila and the Collapse of the State
After the death of Attila, his three sons from his wife Arıkan: orderly, Ilek, Dengizik, Irnek couldn't replace him. Ilek, who had been an Emperor, had lost his life in the battle of Netao (in Austria) against the rebellious German tribes (454). Dengizik, who had been quite brave but deprived of political intelligence, died with a Byzantine's sword after his resultless disputes to re-establish the unity of the empire (469). Irnek, did not join those battles and after the death of his brothers, he understood the difficulty of ruling in Middle Europe and together with a big part of the war-tired Huns he returned to the west shores of the Black Sea after he received the passing permission from Byzantium.
It is understood that the Huns under the command of Irnek, had played an important role in the constitutions of the states of the Bulgarians and Hungarians, who firstly had been seen in the plains of South Russia and then in the Balkans and Middle Europe. According to the traditions, the Dulo Family, who had been the founder of the Bulgarian-Turk State, and the Arpad dynasty, who brought the Hungarian tribes near the Danube and made them settle there, recognized Irnek as being their ancestor. In the IV. century, according to the legend of the "enchanting deer" with the deer pattern that guided the Huns from Volga to the west, the Huns and the Hungarians (Hunor-Mogor) were shown as brothers. Finally, there is a Commander Caba Legend in which it is stated that the Sekel's, who lived in Hungary, had been the children of the Huns
The Effects of the Hun Sovereignty in Europe
a) Ethnical, by the "migration of the tribes" (mixture of the Europian inhabitants, the bases of today's situation)
b) Literary, by the wars or friendly relations (legend of Nibelungen, etc.). Attila, named as Etzel and as being a "good king" is mentioned in the "Nibulungenlied", one of the masterpieces and the oldest one of the German popular literature.
c) Aesthetics, by the steppe art,
d) Political, by the collapse of the West Roman Empire and with the beginning of the big invasion movements (due to the Khanate, Attila had founded, different races and kinds of the Eastern and Middle European tribes, could find a possibility to live together under the strong and military organization of the dominant Turk-Hun element.)
e) Social, as the creator of the "knightship" life for the protection of the peasants and weak, and the national feelings as a reply to the concept of the Roman Empire.
f) Military, because of the improvement movements of the European armies according to the Turkish system. The Turkish cultural effects continued during the whole Middle ages in the west.
Since the 5th century, the Roman people started to organise their military powers in accordance with the Turkish army and to adopt the decimal (10) system that was applied within the Hun army. They had firstly seen the Turks who wore cotton shirts and they imitated them. They also learned from the Turks to wear jackets and pants and to eat at tables. The Khazar Princess Çiçek had worn a "kagan hatun dress" (ruler's wife dress) of Turkish type when she went to the Byzantine palace as a bride. This dress of hers was in fashion and then, it got widespread in the entire Europe.
There were several representatives and foreign officials of the countries that were under the domination in the palace of Attila. Therefore, the Goth and Latin languages were also as common as Turkish language. However, the Turks had maintained both their language and traditions without any degeneration. Actually, when the political domination came to an end, only Turkish was spoken and the people turned towards the Turkish environments.
The Western Huns were highly developed as goldsmiths and silversmiths. Several ceramic and golden material were founded in the course of the excavations that were carried out in Hungary where Huns had led a settled life for a long time. Apart from weapons and horse harnesses, golden cauldrons, silver belts and spoons, golden crowns, etc. were excavated from he Hun sepulchres.
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